JAPA (Online) 2009
Volume 37 pg 40-60

A Tutorial Discussion of the use of the terms "Robust" and "Rugged" and the Associated Characteristics of "Robustness" and "Ruggedness" as used in Descriptions of Analytical Procedures

Duncan Thorburn Burns1, Klaus Danzer2 and Alan Townshend3

1School of Chemistry,The Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast BT9 5EB, N. Ireland, UK
2Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Lessingstrasse 8, Germany
3Department of Chemistry, The University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, UK


    The terms robust and rugged areclearlydefined and their uses distinguished along with the associated characteristics of robustness and ruggedness. It is shown that the characteristics of robustness and ruggedness which express resistance against conditions and influences which decrease both precision and accuracy of analytical results, obtained by a particular procedure in a given laboratory or in different laboratories, can be treated quantitatively by the introduction of two new concepts, namely, relative robustness and relative ruggedness.

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